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Revision, cladistic analysis, and zoogeography of Vitalius, Nhandu, and Proshapalopus; with notes on other Theraphosine Genera (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

Rogério Bertani

Abstract


The 16 species of the South American theraphosine genera Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993; Nhandu Lucas, 1981; and Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described, keyed, illustrated, diagnosed, and a cladistic analysis using 30 terminals and 35 characters is provided. Vitalius comprises nine species of which 4 are newly described: Vitalius paranaensis, V. longisternalis, V. buecherli, and V. lucasae. Pterinopelma dubium Mello-Leitão, 1923 and P. vellutinum Mello-Leitão, 1923 are removed from the synonymy of P. wacketi and these three species are transferred to Vitalius. Pamphobeteus communis Piza, 1939 is removed from the synonymy of Vitalius sorocabae Mello-Leitão, 1923 and placed in the synonymy of Vitalius dubius (Mello-Leitão, 1923); Pamphobeteus insularis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Pamphobeteus masculus Piza, 1939 and Pamphobeteus litoralis Piza, 1976 are removed from the synonymy of Vitalius platyomma (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and placed in the synonymy of Vitalius wacketi (Mello-Leitão, 1923); Pamphobeteus cucullatus Mello-Leitão, 1923, Pamphobeteus urbanicolus Soares, 1941, Pamphobeteus ypirangensis Soares, 1941, Pamphobeteus mus Piza, 1944, and Pamphobeteus cesteri (Mello-Leitão, 1923) are placed in the synonymy of Vitalius dubius (Mello-Leitão, 1923); Pamphobeteus cephalopheus Piza, 1944 is removed from the synonymy of Vitalius roseus (Mello-Leitão, 1923) and placed in the synonymy of Vitalius vellutinus (Mello-Leitão, 1923). Pamphobeteus rondoniensis Mello-Leitão, 1923; Pamphobeteus tetracanthus Mello-Leitão, 1923; Pamphobeteus exsul Mello-Leitão, 1923; and Pamphobeteus platyomma Mello-Leitão, 1923 are considered "nomina dubia". The male of V. roseus Mello-Leitão, 1923 is described for first time. The genus Nhandu comprises 4 species of which one is newly described: Nhandu cerradensis. Nhandu vulpinus (Schmidt, 1998) is transferred from Vitalius and the monotypic genus Brazilopelma Schmidt is synonymized with Nhandu; thus the new combination Nhandu coloratovillosus (Schmidt, 1998) is established. Nhandu tripartitus Schimdt, 1997 is considered "nomen dubium". The genus Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923 comprises 3 species. Proshapalopus multicuspidatus (Mello-Leitão, 1929) is transferred from Cyclosternum Ausserer; and Proshapalopus amazonicus, nomem novum for Pamphobeteus anomalus Mello-Leitão, 1923, is transferred from Eupalaestrus. Proshapalopus variegatus Caporiacco, 1955 is transferred to Metriopelma variegatum. The females of P. anomalus, P. multicuspidatus, and P. amazonicus are described for the first time. Other new combinations are proposed: Lasiodora benedenii Bertkau, 1880, from Pamphobeteus; Lasiodora cristata (Mello-leitão, 1923) from Pamphobeteus. Eupalaestrus spinosissimus Mello-Leitão, 1923, previously considered a "nomen dubium", is considered a senior synonym of Eupalaestrus tarsicrassus Bücherl, 1947 and Pamphobeteus holophaeus Mello-Leitão, 1923. Pseudotheraphosa Tinter is synonymized with Theraphosa Thorell. Urticating hair types were found to be segregated into distinct areas on the spiders' abdomen; and, relation between the different regions where urticating hairs were sampled and their length, was found. Sexual dimorphism was found in some species, where the males have urticating hair of the types I and III, while the females have only the type I. Hairs with intermediate morphology between the types I and HI were found in some males. Two cases of structural anomalies involving eyes and toracic fovea are reported. Locality records, distribution maps and area cladograms are presented. Twelve areas of endemism were found for forest environments and four for open environments.

Keywords


Cladistic analysis;systematics;zoogeography;neotropics;araneae;theraphosidae;theraphosinae;Vitalius;Nhandu;Proshapalopus;Lasiodora;Eupalaestrus;Theraphosa;urticating hair;area cladogram;endemism;structural anomaly

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-7793.v36i3p265-356

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